What is a sentence enhancement in a DUI case?

Most states increase the penalty for a drunk driving offense in certain situations; this is known as sentence enhancement. The most common of these is one or more earlier convictions for the same or a similar offense -- usually within five to ten years of the current offense. Other common sentence enhancements exist for allegations that:

(1) a child was in the car at the time of the drunk driving violation;

(2) the defendant was traveling 20 or 30 miles per hour over the speed limit at the time;

(3) the blood-alcohol concentration was over 0.20%;

(4) the defendant refused to submit to a chemical test;

(5) there was property damage or injury.

In most states, the existence of any personal injury caused by drunk driving elevates the offense to a felony. A death can trigger manslaughter or even, in a few states, second degree murder charges.